Wednesday, May 27, 2020

Till Death Do Us Part - Literature Essay Samples

In Tamar Heller’s study, Dead Secrets: Wilkie Collins and the Female Gothic, she suggests that Ellen Moers’ use of the term â€Å"Female Gothic† refers to the nightmarish marriages that are presented in novels of this genre, in which women were often imprisoned, trapped, and oppressed within a society that emphasized domesticity. Through the descriptions of forbidding castles and evil men, the heroines in these gothic novels are portrayed as being in a constant state of danger and peril as they lose all control over their own lives. In both Radcliffe’s The Mysteries of Udolpho and Wilkie Collins’ The Woman in White, the leading female characters become isolated and trapped as the men around them dictate their futures, and the promise of marriage becomes the most terrifying aspect to both novels. Marriage in both of these pieces of gothic and sensation fiction is portrayed as being oppressive, dangerous, and brought about for all the wrong reasons. E ach bride and groom has a different experience with marriage that is exemplified through the use of common gothic conventions, but Emily St. Aubert and Laura Fairlie both recognize the feeling and importance of love, yet are pushed into marital agreements that are based on falsehoods. In The Mysteries of Udolpho and The Woman in White, Emily St. Aubert and Laura Fairlie both fall in love with men that the people around them prevent them from being with, and in turn they are thrust into marriages with men who do not have their best interests in mind. Emily, the strong-willed and spunky heroine of Radcliffe’s gothic piece, falls in love with Valancourt, and receives the approval of her father before his passing (Radcliffe 57). Her father liked him and believed him to be a good man, and her father’s opinion was held in Emily’s high regard. After St. Aubert dies, Valancourt reminds Emily of her beloved father and is in some ways the last living reminder of him in the world. Eventually Emily does marry the love of her life despite the villainous forces around her who try to push her into a marriage with Count Morano, a man whom she does not care for (218). He tries to force himself on her, sneaks into her bedroom, and even goes as far to threaten h er. Emily loses her parents, who are the most important people to her, and not long after is put under the control of men who put her in constant danger and peril. Being forced into a marriage and being controlled by the people around her proves to be more frightening to Emily than any other seemingly supernatural occurrence in the novel, â€Å"as she trembled, more than ever, at the power of Montoni, which seemed unlimited as his will, for she saw, that he would not scruple to transgress any law, if, by so doing, he could accomplish his project† (219). Although Emily finally does get her happy ending and gets to marry for love just as her mother and father did, her aunt does not see the same fate. Her aunt, Madame Cheron, marries Count Montoni, an evil man with no interests at heart other than his own. He marries her merely to have control over her money and does whatever he can in order to attain it, even locking her up in a confined quarter of the already claustrophobic ca stle, in much the same way that she is already locked up in their marriage, and leaving her there to essentially die (364). Emily’s aunt is taken advantage of by Count Montoni and becomes literally isolated within a marriage where she only serves as a piece of property, which seems to be an exemplary model of marriage of the time, but is made more dramatic through the use of gothic conventions. Laura Fairlie also finds a love of her own in her drawing teacher, Walter Hartwright, who stays in her home with her and her sister. Hartwright also shares a strong love for Laura, his sweet and charming pupil, but due to their difference in rank and Laura’s agreement to marry another man, Sir Percival Glyde, they are forbidden from being together. Unlike Emily whose father approved of the man that she desired, Laura’s father strongly promoted her marrying Sir Percival Glyde before his passing. Also a girl who loves and strongly respects her father, Laura feels that it is her duty to carry out her father’s wishes. With Sir Percival Glyde, â€Å"rank, fortune, good breeding, good looks, the respect of a gentleman, and the devotion of a lover, were all humbly placed at her feet, and, so far as appearances went, were all offered in vain (Collins 137). Despite what her suitor may have to offer, it means nothing because he is the not the man whom she is in love with. Marriage during this time period meant nothing more than a signing away of woman’s life to a man who would control her and have ultimate power over her body, life, money, and property. Women having the choice to marry who they love seems rare during this time period, and Laura is clearly distraught and aware of this fact as she tells her lawyer, Mr. Gilmore, â€Å"‘I have not been well – I have felt sadly weak and nervous lately; and I often cry without reason when I am alone’† (144). Laura isn’t so much of a heroine in this novel as she is more so exemplified by the gothic convention of a damsel in distress. She is put in a bad situation in which she has promised to marry a man who is not the person that she loves, and is only marrying her in order to seek access to her estate. Her sister, Marian, eventually saves her and is able to prevent her money and property from being put under the villainous man’s control, as she proves to be the heroine of the piece. Her lawyer is disgusted by the marriage contract because â€Å"the want of ready money was the practical necessity of Sir Percival’s existence; and his lawyer’s note on the clause in the settlement was nothing but the frankly selfish expression of it,† but he fails to fully stand up for what is right and still goes through with signing it despite being morally opposed to it (152). Laura does marry Sir Percival Glyde, but after his evil concocted plan unravels at the seams, she is able to eventually join in matrimony with Walter Hartwright, the love of her life, in much the same way that Emily is able to marry Valancourt. Emily and Laura (with the help of her sister) are both finally able to escape from the peril around them and seek happiness for themselves at the end of both novels. Gothic conventions play an important role in both of these novels to portray marriage as being dangerous and oppressive to the women during this time period. In The Mysteries of Udolpho, the forbidding castle in which these characters reside is an important gothic convention that strongly contributes to the fearful idea of marriage in Radcliffe’s novel. Emily has no control over who comes in and enters her room, and her safety is constantly at risk as she never knows when her aggressive admirer will attack her. Emily and Madame Cheron, who becomes Madame Montoni, are both trapped in this haunting fortress by the men around them who all want something from them that they are determined to get. Due to both of these women having money but being unable to own property due to their gender, they are put at risk by these villainous men who wish to marry them to control them and oppress them, not to love them. In The Woman in White, dark doubling is another important gothic convention that lends itself to the presentation of marriage as being scary and nightmarish. Anne Catherick, the mysterious woman in white, is the dark double of Laura Fairlie, as she is perceived as being plagued by lunacy by Sir Percival Glyde. He uses the obvious resemblance between the two women to his advantage in order to steal his wife’s estate. Laura marries a villainous man out of obligation and fear of going back on a promise, and ends up in an asylum where her death is being feigned. The use of this gothic convention distinctly shows how strongly Sir Percival Glyde, and other men of this time, viewed women as property to which they would go through great lengths to gain control over. Ann Radcliffe’s The Mysteries of Udolpho and Wilkie Collins’ The Woman in White are both strong examples of novels representative of the gothic genre that use gothic conventions to display marriage as being potentially harmful and oppressive to women. Women during the time period presented in these novels often had no rights and no voice of their own, and had to sign away their property, money, and basically their life upon marriage. Marriage was seen as the end goal for women of the time, and a perfect wife is often portrayed as a character such as Laura, who is delicate, sweet, and dainty. Her sister, Marian, who views men as the â€Å"enemies of our innocence and our peace – [as] they drag us away from our parents’ love and our sisters’ friendship – they take us body and soul to themselves, and fasten our helpless lives to theirs as they chain up a dog to a kennel† is described as being manly, dark, and even outright ugly (Collins 1 81). Women during this time were expected to be submissive and ready to submit themselves to marriage and a man’s control, and a woman such as Marian represents the opposition to this, and the way her appearance is described exemplifies how unaccepted and unpopular her opinion of marriage was at the time. Laura is aware of the fact that she is basically giving her life away in order to be trapped in a marriage as she tells her sister, â€Å"‘I can never claim my release from my engagement. Whatever way it ends, it must end wretchedly for me,’† and, â€Å"‘I must submit Marian, as well as I can. My new life has its hard duties; and one of them begins to-day’† (163, 172). In these works of gothic and sensation fiction, marriage is clearly and distinctly portrayed as being oppressive, scary, dangerous, and something to fear far more than the mysterious, claustrophobic castle of Udolpho where Emily is isolated, the dark, shady Blackwater Pa rk where Laura is separated from her sister, and the dark doubling of the shadowy woman in white.

Saturday, May 16, 2020

Cyber Crime And Cyber Criminals - 844 Words

Cyber crime is defined as any crime that involves a computer and network. Individuals, businesses and government agencies around the world constantly face threats to their medical information, consumer data, as well as company trade information and military decisions. Cyber security specialists are professionals that are specifically trained to protect individuals and organizations from cyber crime, hackers and scammers. Cyber criminals cause chaos Cyber criminals take pride in creating chaos, and the chaos that cyber criminals inflict on their victims can be crippling to individuals and corporations. We have all heard about hackers getting information from major retail chains as well as information being leaked that included Social Security numbers for millions of people. We use the internet with somewhat of a naivete expectation that all of our information is safe. That is, until something untoward occurs, and then it can be all out panic. The faces of cyber crime - frequent types of incidents Interruption of service Viruses, worms or other malicious code Phishing Spyware implanted Ransomware One of the ways in which cyber criminals like to operate is by causing an interruption of service which can cause significant damage to all those effected. When a network comes to a screeching halt, so do all of the services that corporation or organization provides. Network viruses are another favorite method of cyber criminals. As we all know, viruses can bring a network toShow MoreRelatedCyber Crime And Cyber Criminal Activity1839 Words   |  8 PagesHave you ever considered the criminals motives for engaging in such type of criminal activity? While computers and the Internet have undoubtedly brought great advantages to society. Computers have also paved new ways for criminals to engage in dangerous activities that are unprecedented in scope and could potentially cause catastrophic consequences for society. Cyber criminal activity occurs constantly, however, many people are unaware of the true meaning of cyber crime and their risks associated withRead MoreCyber Criminals: Cyber-Crime and Cyberstalking Essay1422 Words   |  6 Pagesitems safe items like wallet chains are used to stop criminals in their tracks. In the case of cars where they cannot always be watched, car alarms were made to protect from thieves. All of these systems are in place to keep people and their possessions safe. There is an area in people’s lives that is not heavily inspected for weaknesses, however. Computers offer criminals a wide range of crimes with smaller risk and no physical harm. These crimes have a huge impact on society because of the end resultsRead MoreCyber Crime And Criminal Justice1420 Words   |  6 Pages Cyber Crime in Criminal Justice James Franklin Florida International Abstract The Internet is the connection of computer networks that link billions of devices worldwide. Every day the Internet is getting bigger and bigger bringing the world even closer. Unfortunately, with the growth of the Internet, this has created more problems for the Cyber World. While the justice system is attempting to handle this issue, it is becoming too consistent and numerous individualsRead MoreCyber Crimes and Juvenile Criminal Behavior744 Words   |  3 PagesWhat drives people to commit crimes can be anything from financial instability to psychological issues. Specialists have long tried to explain what lies beyond the actual crime act and have been further challenged by the emergence of the technological era. In a time when societies depend alarmingly on computers, digital crime can no longer be confronted the same as regular offences because they are being played on an entire different level. It is our belief that each of the existing theories whichRead MoreCyber Criminolo gy: Exploring Internet Crimes and Criminal Behavior by K. Jaishankar2837 Words   |  12 Pagesassaulted by an individual? In Cyber Criminology: Exploring Internet Crimes and Criminal Behavior by K. Jaishankar, he describes all the ways people across the world are attacked everyday by some sort of malware or by an individual, such as a pedophile. Certain topics that will be discussed are subcultures in cyberspace, types of hackers/crackers, virtual sex offenders along with pedophiles, digital piracy, cyber victimization, and legal circumstances that occur when cyber crimes have been committed. WeRead MoreThe Achievement And Success Of Cyber Crimes1124 Words   |  5 PagesSuccess in Cybercrime Cyber crimes refer to crimes committed against computers, computer networks of the information stored in computers (Bronk, 2008). In the past, the main problem that law enforcement officers have faced with regard to cyber crimes has had to do with the jurisdiction. With the prominence of the internet as a means communication and computers are a means of accessing information, cyber crimes have become prevalent. However, given the realisation that cyber crimes can be committed byRead MoreEssay on Computer Crime: Technology and Cyberspace1343 Words   |  6 Pagesbasis is criminals committing either trivial or major crimes; so it is not hard to imagine that these two actions would start to syndicate into one. Cyber-crime is defined as â€Å"unauthorized use of a computer for personal gain† (Dictionary.com), but the true depth of the definition is so much deeper. Anyone can be affected by cyber-crime, it can affect personal computer users all the way to massive corporations. Th ere are many government agencies trying to get control of this growing problem. Cyber-crimeRead MoreThe Complexities of Prosecuting Cyber Crime Essay650 Words   |  3 PagesCyber crime and traditional crime have similar identifiable traits when criminal activity is the outcome. The goal of any criminal is to cause harm, threat steal, extortion, to name a few with intent to harm the public good. Local and state law prosecutes traditional crimes through the state attorney. The prosecutor represents the people(entity) of the state. The defendant or the entity charged must prove to the state, by reasonable doubt, their innocent’s of the charges. IndividualsRead MoreShould Government Implement Laws For Cyber Crime?977 Words   |  4 PagesGovernment implement laws to prevent cyber crime† Today is the era of technology and globalisation, as it connects the whole world together but also opens new ways to crime. Cyber crime is the result of negative use of technology. Cyber crime refers to a crime which is committed through internet or computer. Cyber crime is of differenr types like stealing of money or information, piracy, electronic vendalism that is destroying or changing the electronic information. Cyber terrorism which threatens not onlyRead MoreWhat Is Cyber Crime?1424 Words   |  6 PagesWHAT IS CYBER CRIME? Crime is a common word that we always heard in this globalization era. Crimes refer to any violation of law or the commission of an act forbidden by law. Crime and criminality have been associated with man since long time ago. There are different strategies practices by different countries to contend with crime. It is depending on their extent and nature. It can be concluded that a nation with high index of crime cases cannot grow or develop well. This is because crime is the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

A Perfect Union By Catherine Allgor Essay - 1488 Words

A Perfect Union by Catherine Allgor describes the life of Dolley Madison starting with her first marriage to John Todd whom she only married because her bed-ridden father told her to. Although the marriage to John was a happy marriage it was soon brought to an abrupt end when the yellow fever hit; killing Dolley’s husband and younger son. The newly widowed Dolley took many trips into town and soon she caught the attention of Congressman James Madison who fell so madly in love with her. This attraction led to Dolley turning her back on her Quaker background when she married James Madison and consequently leaded to her removal from â€Å"the meeting†. Dolley and James moved to Washington with all of Congress, she assisted in involving the wives of the Government men— these women were known as â€Å"the ladies of Washington†Ã¢â‚¬â€into the political policies and life. Before James’ presidency, Dolley got ill due to an infection from an unhealed wound on her knee which resulted in her leaving Washington to Philadelphia for surgery. Even from her hospital bed, Dolley managed to connected Philadelphia and Washington together just like the capital does. Soon after arriving back home from the hospital bed, Dolley became depressed especially with the loss of her sister, her sister’s kids and her mom. Later on during the presidential campaign, Dolley took the â€Å"practical task† of winning her husband’s supporters and presenting her family to the public through many parties she hosted. James soon won

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Essay on Reconstruction free essay sample

The outcome of Reconstruction has been labeled a success and a failure both. When Reconstruction started in 1 865, we had just finished fighting in the Civil War. Reconstruction was a time period of trying to put the pieces of a broken America back together. It was a point in time that America tried to become a full running country once again. It wasnt easy, though. Death was a recent memory still burned into everybody minds, turning into resentment. The South was almost non-existent, both politically and economically, trying to find a way back in.Amongst all this, there were almost four million former Essay _-. :. Cur_ slaves who didnt have a clue how to make a living on their own freed by the thirteenth Amendment in 1 865, and soon became political leaders. Something had to be done, and nobody made it. A few leaders came forward with their own ideas for Recons each of them were sure that their idea was the right one. We will write a custom essay sample on Essay on Reconstruction or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Abram the president at the time, was the first person to come up with Reconstruction. The Lincoln Plan was an open one, and it stats. Retain criteria were met a Confederate state could return to the Tate had to have ten percent of voters accept emancipation of loyalty to the union, and high ranking officers of state could mol voting rights unless the president said so. Abraham Lincoln WA before he could test his plan. After his death the Republican Pa themselves The Radical Republicans, emerged with their own ICC Reconstruction. They had two main objectives. First, they were South and blamed them for the Civil War and wanted to punish Second, they wanted to help the four million freed slaves. They slaves needed protection and wanted to do that.There were the Radical Republican leaders. They were Thatched Stevens, Char and President Andrew Johnson. Thatched was a political man v place in the House of Representatives. His main concern was TTT opportunity for slaves. He wanted them to know how to make own. Charles Sumner was a senator who mostly fought for Affair political rights and their citizenship. He thought that the All me equal part of the Constitution should be for everybody. For Mac Most likely due to the fact that Johnson was Lincoln Vice Press( Reconstruction plan that just about mirrored the former PresideRadicals did not approve, though. They felt he went over the In pardons, and he wasnt paying attention to the major issue, the slaves. In 1868 Johnson was impeached. Congress stepped in v plan for Reconstruction and it was passed. They had two main I though. First, the troops were to move in and reside in the con in the South. Second, any State that wanted back into the Noir allowed to do so if they changed their 14th amendment. They a agree that everybody born in the U. S were citizens and they we treated fairly and as equals by the law.

Thursday, April 16, 2020

Just Put Your Mind to It free essay sample

Has somebody ever told you it was impossible to do something? Well you can. I’m just a normal kid in Kentucky that goes to a normal high school. West Jessamine. I have always loved the sport football, and it is the best sport out there. I have learned a lot of life values and probably the most important ones from football. I plan on keeping these values and learning new ones. I believe that if you put your mind to something you can accomplish anything. Really, if you think about it, you can do anything you put your mind to. If you are over weight and you have the thought of maybe getting skinnier than you can. Just put your mind to it. Exercise and eating a little less everyday is all you would have to do. See it is a very true statement. I know that every person out there has put there mind to something and accomplished it. We will write a custom essay sample on Just Put Your Mind to It or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Here is a bunch of examples on why I believe in this statement. If you are a straight D student and wanted to make A’s and B’s then just put your mind to it. Study every night and do you’re HW and there ya have it, A’s and B’s. A good story about this belief is the Miracle Worker. This girl named Annie Sullivan takes on the task of teaching a blind and deaf girl how to communicate. She works hard and she trys and put her mind to it. At the end, she finally gets it through the girl (Helen Keller) how to communicate. This is just one great story on the belief that if you put your mind to it you can do anything. Another great story is about a woman named Oprah Winfrey. As a young child, she was abused. She was African American and lived in a poor neighborhood. She tried extremely hard at school and this allowed her to become the richest woman in America. Now she is working on a show called the Oprah show, and it gives advice and other thing to people that need it. All kids at some point say that you can’t do something. Then the parents come over and show them. Just recently, I had an encounter with my belief statement. I was loading up 40-pound bags of salt and I told my dad I could not do it. Then my dad comes over and shows me the easiest way to transport the bags. Then next thing you now I am putting all the bags in the basement very quickly. As you can see if you put your mind to it you can do anything. The very reason I why I believe this statement comes from a life lesson. I was 10 years old and played football. I was a very large lineman and always wanted to be a running back. I wanted to be the person who got all the glory. I told my dad this. He told me that I really wanted to do something that I could. He gave me the advice that if I ran everyday after practice that I would get skinnier and would be allowed to run the ball. Therefore, I put my mind to it and ran and ran. I eventually got under the weight limit (120 pounds) and the coach told me I could run the ball. So I did. Now I am a running back for our high school and enjoy it In my future, I believe that my belief statement will take me a long way. I hope that it takes me farther in football and ables me to get a scholarship. It should help me in college. If I have an essay that seems impossible, I will know that if I put my mind to it that I can accomplish it. In addition, I think when I start making money that this will play a big part. Overall, I believe that if you put your mind to it that you can accomplish anything you want.

Friday, March 13, 2020

Francis Bacon and Torture Essay Example

Francis Bacon and Torture Essay Example Francis Bacon and Torture Paper Francis Bacon and Torture Paper Essay Topic: The Scrutiny and Other Poems Francis Bacon and Torture BY ajf2055 Academic Bio: Anthony J. Funari I am currently a doctoral student at Lehigh University and in May will have finished my dissertation, entitled Challenging the Scientific Mind: The Poetic Resistance to Bacons Grand Instauration. My thesis examines the poetry of John Donne, Andrew Marvell, and John Wilmot, the Earl of Rochester, as a site from which is launched a meaningful critique of Francis Bacons scientific program. My research interests include depictions of the natural in seventeenth-century poetry and prose, the rise of the city in Jacobean drama, and ecofeminist criticism. Abstract: This article examines the relevance that Francis Bacons call for humanity to engage in a (re)productive relationship with Nature has for Andrew Marvells The Mowers Song. Rather than viewing Damons realization of his isolation from the meadows as solely due to his emerging sexual feeling for Juliana, this article complicates the Mowers plight by arguing that Damon experiences a tropological shift in how he characterizes Nature. While in Damon, the Mower sexuality appears alien to the natural world, Damon comes to recognize Nature as a sexual entity through his epiction of the grasss growth as luxuriant and the meadows as a participant in a May-game festivity. The transition that Damon experience parallels that which Bacon demands for the sciences. For Bacon, the restoration of humanitys Edenic mastery begins with treating Nature as any woman subject to masculine domination. However, in perceiving Nature through Bacons terms, Marvells protagonist does not discover a path to back Paradise but reenacts the Fall. : On this basis, Marvell problematizes the tropological foundation on which Bacon rests the new science. Companions of My Thoughts More Green: Damons Baconian Sexing of Nature In his essay Of Youth and Age, Bacon expresses anxiety over the youthful mind, which he finds to be impetuous, prone to flights of fancy, and possessing a vitality that must be checked: And yet the invention of young men is more lively than that of old, and imaginations stream into their minds better, and as it were more divinely. Natures that nave much neat, and great and violent desires and perturbations, are not ripe for action till they have passed the meridian of their years. i The danger of the young ind, for Bacon, lies in its susceptibility to the imagination, which provokes the intellect into rashly latching onto its initial thoughts as opposed to subjecting them to sober scrutiny. Bacon appears much concerned over this period in ones intellectual development: though energetic, without the proper guidance and temperance, the youthful mind may fail to act productively. The intellect in this early stage will move hastily, supposing too much from its preliminary impressions: Young men, in conduct and [management] of actions, embrace more than they can hold; stir more than they an quiet; fly to the end, without consideration of the means and degrees; pursue some few principles which they have chanced upon absurdly and, that which doubleth all errors, will not acknowledge or retract them; like an unready horse that will neither stop nor turn. i Here the quintessential aspects of the young mind, as Bacon portrays it, are the lack of order in its thought processes and sense of egotism in its disregard for contrary evidence. Yet, as readers of Bacons Essays are aware, the essays themselves do not offer an unequivocal stance on a topic but rather emonstrate Bacons own unstructured mental explorations. Bacon goes as far as to contradict his opening assessment of the young mind; in citing Joel 2. 28 Wour young men shall see visions, and your old men shall dr eam dreams. ), Bacon posits the notion that the youthful mind itself should be privileged in its being closer to God than the old. Consequently, the mature mind is corrupted through its trafficking in the world of human thought: And certainly, the more a man drinketh of the world, the more it intoxicateth; and age doth profit rather in the powers of understanding than in the virtues of the will and affections. iii In a sense, Bacon here espouses a proto-Romantic idealization of youth, as a moment prior to societys intrusion that obscures ones pristine encounter with the world. Within this brief meditation on the nature of youth, Bacon articulates a primary tension that informs his program of reform for all learning: whether learning should be retrospective, always attempting to recover a past era that was the height of knowledge, or progressive, viewing knowledge as accumulative and successively ameliorating humanitys condition. Though in Of Youth and Age Bacon does not offer a final conclusion on the value f the youthful mind, the corpus of his scientific writings unreservedly advocates for the progressive nature of human learning. Throughout Novum Organum (1620), Bacons foundational treatise of the new philosophy, there is a sustained distrust of youth. In essence, the program that Bacon envisions looks to curb the instinctual habit of the immature mind to leap and fly from particulars to remote and nearly the most general axioms (such as the so-called first principles of arts and of things). iv Bacon portrays his instauration of learning as the transitioning from a young, mpetuous mindset to one more disciplined. In Temporis partus masculus (The Masculine Birth of Time) (1603), one of Bacons earliest espousals of his epistemological reform, the elder guide admonishes his student that he should not feel ready to explore Nature without his guidance yet: But, my son, if I should ask you to grapple immediately with the bewildering complexities of experimental science before your mind has been purged of its idols, beyond a peradventure you would promptly desert your leader. v Without his elderly instructor, the youthful student would succumb to the idols ot the road. Bacon reiterates again and again his conception of youth not as a privileged time of innocence and intellectual/ spiritual clarity but a perilous moment through which one must be carefully guided. Bacons apprehension of youth becomes a pivotal facet of the tropology of his instauration. As Bacon foresees the future path of human learning, the transition from a pre-modern, allegorical worldview to a modern scientifically-based mode of learning parallels the sexual maturation of the male youth. Bacon foresees in the human minds leaving behind its childhood, which he finds represented in the lassical texts, mankinds reclamation of the mastery over Nature once enjoyed in Eden. This mental transition or maturation entails the imperative to sexualize Nature, to perceive the relationship between humanity and Nature as one in which the latter is subject to sexual domination by the former. For Bacon, only when the encounter with Nature is read through the metaphor of sexual reproductionNature is properly read as other and engaged with on a sexually reproductive basis can humanity hope to formulate the type of knowledge so that the mind can exercise its rightful authority over the nature of things. vi For Bacon, when learning enters into a sexually mature adulthood, humanity will prosper in enjoying a return to an Edenic state. Feminist critics of modern science expose the sexism innate in the rhetoric of Baconian scientific knowledge. Carolyn Merchant reveals the implicit sexualizing imagery in transforming Nature into inert material for industrial consumption: The constraints against penetration associated with the earth-mother image were transformed into sanctions for denudation. vii Although recent apologists of Bacon rebut this line of criticism as anachronistically misreading his tropology,viii his cientific treatises bear out the correlation between the emergence of the new science and the entrance into adult male sexuality. In the discussion of Bacons writings below, I trace this analogy through a series of key texts. My intent for revisiting Bacons use of adult male sexuality as a trope for the new science is to identify the conception of sexual/intellectual maturation that Andrew Marvell responds to in the Mowers Song. In this essay, I will read Andrew Marvells Damon, the Mower and The Mowers Songix in the context of the tropology that Bacon grounds the humanitys new engagement with Nature. Critical discussion of Marvells Mower poems centers on his diverging from the pastoral convention of the sympathetic landscape. While the pastoral mode is primarily characterized by the pathetic fallacy between the human subject and Nature, Marvell breaks with this tradition by depicting a dissonance between his protagonist, Damon, and his environment. Particularly, The Mowers Song opens with Damons lament for the loss of the reflective relationship that he once enjoyed with the meadow. i My own reading of Damons isolation contextualizes Marvells revising of the pastoral mode rom one based on harmony with ones environment to one expressing a profound sense of division between the self and other within Bacons scientific instauration. If the Mower poems are a sequence centered on the sexual maturation of a single personality, The Mowers Song presents Damon at the end of this development, nostalgically looking back on a period of unity. ii Damon ultimately experiences sexuality as alien ating, entrapping him in an unfamiliar world in which he can no longer enjoy the unity he once had with the meadows. Beyond Damons isolation, I ind that Marvells pastoral protagonist enacts Bacons a Baconian tropological shitt Damon intellectually transitions from mindset that reads his environment as asexual and reflective of his own inner world to one that sees the meadows as a sexual entity that must be dominated. So far so good, as Bacon would have us understand Damons maturation. However, as opposed to a re-entering of Eden, Damon comes to suffer another Fall. Where Bacon promised to bring knowledge to perfection in charity, for the benefit and use of life, xiii Marvells Damon finds only alienation, anguish, and death in his newly sexualized environment. The tropology that will open up path to ameliorating humanitys physical condition that Bacon espouses,undergirds Baconian science for Damon, leads to his lashing out against the meadows. This reading of Damons alienation from the meadows further builds on and complicates how his crisis is generally understood by scholars. Critics of the Mower poems argue for the intersection between Damons emerging sexuality and his relationship with the meadows. Within this reading, Julianas entrance into Damons world, which becomes the catalyst for his entrance into sexuality, provokes is loss of the harmonious relationship that he once enjoyed with Nature. Robgert N. Watson traces the loss of a symbiotic relationship with Nature to the speakers heterosexual desire. That isFor Watson, the poem acts as an admonishment against men involving themselves with women, who bring with them otherness: The Mower to Glowworms is ostensibly a poem of frustrated love that never in fact mentions love at all. This certainly suggests that something else is at stake; Juliana has displaced his mind, not broken his heart. All the same can be said of The Mowers Song. Again the woman is a marker of otherness e desire for her produces (or reflects) a recognition of a loss of symbiotic presence in the universe that is a perpetual fact for the human creature, despite the impulse to hide it behind a particular erotic betrayal. xiv Likewise, Judith Haber finds that Julianas presence forces Damon into a recognition of his own individuality and separateness: Romantic love makes Damon acutely aware of the separate existence of another; he therefore becomes aware of both his i ndividual isolation and his desire for union. xv For Watson and Haber, then, the sexual awakening that Juliana evokes from Damon leads ocauses Damon to recognize his awareness of her uniqueness from himself, which in turn causes him to perceive his own isolation from his environment. Sexual maturation in Marvells Mower poems brings loneliness. True enough, but I argue that Damons new post-Juliana experience of Nature is more complex. It is not simply that Damon finds himself unconnected to the meadows after encountering Juliana and thus is no longer able to enjoy an easy fantasy of a childish fellowship with Nature, but also that Damon within his post-Juliana perspective sees sex as part of Nature. While I agree with this reading that attributes Damons sense of alienation to his recognition of his sexuality, Damons new post-Juliana experience of Nature, I argue, reflects a profound and complex metaphorical transition. This re-imagining Nature as a sexual entity redefines the dynamic of Damons relationship with his environment: what had once secured his sense of self through a maternal trope now is perceived as Jeopardizing his agency and so must be subdued. This is my intervention into the critical conversation surrounding The Mowers Song: whereas while critics, such as Watson and Haber, read Damons dilemma as merely one in hich sexuality brings otherness and isolation, I posit add to this converstion by positing that Julianas presence and Damons subsequent sexual maturation leads to his perceiving sexuality as an innate facet of his environment. This article then looks to recover The Mowers Song as a space in which Marvell dramatizes the tropological shift that Bacon advocates. and critiques the Baconian shift in the terms through which one encounters Nature. Leaving Behind The Boyhood of Knowledge In Novum, Bacon posits a modern historiography, which puts forth the progressive nature of learning. For Bacon, contemporary knowledge appears stagnant: By contrast [to the mechanical arts] philosophy and the intellectual sciences stand like statues, worshipped and celebrated, but not moved forwards. xvi The Bacon charges humanist veneration of the ancient authors had humanism for turning the intellects perspective forever looking backwards through its veneration of classical authors. Such an epistemological position sought truth in the recovery of ancient learning through philology; that is, the closer one could come linguistically to these past texts, the more one could access a golden age of learning. Much of the agenda that Ba con sets out in his scientific writings advocates for the reorienting of our historical perspectiveoutlook. Rather than what Bacon sees as the humanists nostalgia for antiquity, the disciple of the new science will be focused on the present and future. This reversal of history, in which the past becomes merely prelude to the present, demands a new ontology of truth: As regards authors, it is utterly feeble to grant them so much but to deny his rights to Time, the author of authors and indeed of all authority. For Truth is rightly described as the daughter of Time, not of Authority. Here Bacons iconoclasm is most pronounced: he sets as antithetical time and authority, each one denoting an opposed epistemology. While authority suggests a textual-based learning that discourages deviation from ancient writings, Bacons claim that truth is the daughter of time liberates the mind from obsequious devotion to the past. The knowledge held in the texts of Aristotle and Plato, for Bacon, should no longer be privileged as representing the maturity of human thought. For the worlds old age is its true antiquity and should apply to our own times, not to the worlds youth, when the ancients lived. For their age which our own point of view is ancient and older, from the worlds point of view is new and younger: Bacon reevaluates the past and repositions the early modern seventeenth-century subject not in a diminished present but on the cusp of an era of discovery. Bacon cites recent innovations and the exploration of the New World as evidence for his historiography: And surely it would be disgraceful in a time when regions of the material globe, that is, of earth, the seas and stars, have been opened up far and wide for us to see, if the limits of our intellectual world were restricted to the narrow discoveries of the ncients. xvii The achievements of Columbus and Galileo necessitated a conception of intellectual history as successive, not in decline. xviii In part, Bacon formulates his progressive model of human intellectual history as a rejection of the preoccupation with words as opposed to things, of which Bacon charges Aristotle as being the original instigator. Notably, in The Masculine Birth, Bacons elderly guide commences his diatribe against ancient philosophers with Aristotle, who leads, for Bacon, the human mind awry by turning its attention towards words: Just when the human mind, borne thither by some favoring gale, had found he rest in a littl e truth, this man presumed to cast the closest tetters on our understandings. He composed an art or manual of madness and made us slaves to words. xix As Bacon will develop further throughout his scientific treatises, Aristotles crime of duping the intellect into the belief that words possess an intrinsic connection with Nature confused the subjective and the objective. That is, the minds fixation on words leads to its mistakenly reading the objective world through its own linguistic constructions. Aristotle, rather than holding the venerable position that umanist tradition had placed him in, becomes the origin of humanitys intellectual fall. Likewise, Bacon remarks that the sin that Aristotle had perpetrated on learning is replayed in the humanist infatuation with ancient texts. In The Advancement, Bacon offers a brief synopsis of the rise in the interest of classical learning, which led to a detrimental obsession with words at the expense of empirical knowledge: This grew speedily to an excess; for men began to hunt more after words than matter more after choiceness of the phrase, and the round and clean composition of the sentence, nd the sweet falling of the clause, and the varying and illustrations of their works with tropes and figures, than after the weight of matter, worth of subject, soundness of argument, life of invention, or depth of Judgment. x The danger of linguistic-based learning is the solipsism in which the mind indulges: the precedence that word assumes over the thing itself, the sign over the referent, turns our mental focus inward. Bacon finds in the humanist preoccupation with words Pygmalions frenzy that fetishizes our linguistic constructs: for words are but images of matter, and xcept they have life of reason and invention, to fall in love with them is all one as to fall in love with a picture. xxi As with Aristotle, the humanists obsession with the word fails to distinguish the self from the other, the subjective from the objective, our linguistic realization of the world from its actuality. Through textually, as opposed to experientially, based learning, Bacon finds that words have become autonomous: instead of facilitating the generation of knowledge, words actually obstruct ones ability to access an objective reality. This epistemology reflects, for Bacon, the mmaturity of the pre-scientific intellect, for the Greeks seem merely the boyhood of knowledge, with the characteristic of boys, that it is good at chattering, but immature and unable to generate. xxii To summarize, Bacon laments that human knowledge is stuck in a pre-sexual stage, characterized by an un(re)productive preoccupation with words that inhibits the encountering of the other beyond the self. The overarching trope that Bacon employs in describing the new stage of human intellectual history is that of male sexual maturation. In considering the above quotation from the preface to his Novum, the boyhood of knowledge that classical uthors represent is marked by impotency: their knowledge, linguistically-based, lacks the ability to sexually encounter Nature, to engage in a (re)productive relationship with a recognized other. This conflation of intellectual and sexual maturity comes through in The Masculine Birth. Here the elderly guide acts as much as teacher as panderer for his young male student. The text indentifies the end goal of the elderly guides instructions as the students ability to engage in a (re)productive relationship with Nature: My dear, dear boy, what I propose is to unite you with things themselves in a chaste, holy, and legal wedlock. Although, as the text presents it, the student has not as yet reached that point of intellectual/sexual maturity, the elderly guide assures the student that once ne nas properly distanced himselt trom Nature he will then be able to bring forth a blessed race of Heroes and Supermen who will overcome the immeasurable helplessness and poverty of the human race. xxiii Bacon, through his character of the elderly guide, defines sexual/intellectual maturation as not Just the penetration of the female other/Nature but also the realization of the social function of this copulation. That is, for Bacon, the sexually/ intellectually mature male subject is one who moves beyond the personal and views his efforts in a public context. In this s ense, both learning and human sexuality most be seasoned with charity. Like the young male who must emotionally separate himself from the female other to properly copulate for the benefit of society, the mind must cleave itself from Nature in order to generate productive knowledge. As Bacon would have the Early Modern subject comprehend his contemporary moment in history, learning, particularly natural philosophy, is about to experience a sexual wakening. No longer will the pre-sexual mindset of the ancient authors confine humanity to mediating its encounter with Nature through solipsistic fantasies. In his Thoughts and Conclusions (1607), Bacon succinctly articulates his identification of ancient Greek philosophy with immature sexuality: Now of this philosophy Aristotle is by universal consent the chief, yet he left nature herself untouched and inviolated, and dissipated his energies in comparing, contrasting and analyzing popular notions about her. xxiv Benjamin Farringtons translation of this unpublished text suggests Bacons overarching indictment of classical philosophy as condemning human learning to a perpetual childhood: in being obsessed with his own mental constructions of Nature, Aristotle allows the human mind to confuse its own fantasy with objective reality and to forgo any material engagement. The notion that Aristotle has left nature untouched and inviolated not only connotes the distance that Aristotle set up between the pre-scientific observer and Nature but also implicitly marks the new adherent of the new philosophy as one who would violate, deflower Nature. The Luxuriant Growth of Nature The correspondence between sexual maturation and humanitys relationship to Nature is a central theme in Marvells Mower poems. Damon, the Mower, The Glowworms, and The Mowers Song chronicle Damons sexual awakening, which, the poems show, has ramifications for Damons perception of his relationship with the meadows. Susan Snyder offers a compelling reading of Damons anxiety over being alienated from Nature that points to the transition of the human subject from a pre-sexual, imaginary state to the recognition of sexual individuality: the overall metaphoric system casts suspicion on sexuality itself. The favored condition here is presexual, with no desire and in fact no discernible differentiation into he and she. xxv The typical Renaissance pastoral Journey, according to Snyder, follows the male protagonist as he leaves a time of unity and allegory to enter into a world of sexuality and death: The Journey is now familiar passage from an Edenic state of natural wholeness through sexual awakening that is also an initiation into individual mortality, which here concludes in a new, negative relation with nature based this time on alienation and death. xxvi The end of the Journey is then separation. Snyder locates this break trom the imaginary stage tor Damon in his sexual awakening brought about by Juliana: Damons song makes apparent the connection between feeling desire and realizing a separate identity. xxvii Sexual awareness then forces one to recognize otherness, and, consequently, the unity of the past, presexual stage is irretrievably lost. My argument here is that as Damon experiences his nascent sexuality, which he initially perceives as an inescapable, preternatural heat that he ascribes to Juliana in Damon, the Mower, not only does he find himself cut off from he reflective relationship that he once enjoyed but also the tropes through which he reads Nature change. To summarize the intellectual shift that I find Damon going through: while the Damon of Damon, the Mower identifies Juliana and the sexuality she comes to represent as external to the meadow, in The Mowers Song the protagonist labels the grasss growth as luxuriant, a word that Marvell invests with sexual connotations a point that I elaborate on further below. Critical discussion of the Mower poems generally characterizes Damon as a solitary pastoral fgure: Damons environment is devoid of any other persons, save Juliana and the wandrring mowers in The Mower to the Glow-worms. Damon imaginatively creates a world that is populated by a personified Nature: the sun that licks off [his] sweat, the eVning sweet that bathes his feet in cowslip water, or the deathless fairies whom he leads in dance (Damon the Mower Ins. 45-8, 61-4). xxviii Yet with Julianas entrance and the recognition of his own sexuality, Damon no longer finds himself co-eternal with his environment. Juliana brings with he r the imperative that Damon must come to grips with his own individuality. Yet this account is only half of the story, as I read it. What scholars of the poem overlook is the fundamental shift in how Damon reads his environment, which reflects the new tropology that Bacon demands for human learning. Damons reading of Nature/ the meadows goes through a fundamental transition along similar lines to those which Bacon demands for human learning. While Damon is not completely aware of his mental transition, Marvell means for the reader to notice and question the new terms on which Damon encounters the meadows. It is not that we are meant to perceive Damon as reaching a truer account of Nature, i. . as a sexual other to be dominated, but instead to itness the consequences of a mind that perceives Nature this way. On this basis, I bring to light Marvells rejection of Baconian thought: whereas Bacon finds the sexualizing of Nature as restorative, through Damons tragedy Marvell avers such a path as isolating and destructive. The opening stanza of the poem finds Damon mourning the loss of the union that once existed between his internal reality and his environment: My mind was once the true survey Of all these meadows fresh and gay (Ins. -2) In this idyllic state of correspondence, Damon could read his world as merely himself rit large; the grass became as a symbol of his own Joy. The meadows were reflective of Damons subjectivity and, when interpreted properly, reveal the similitudes between the human subject and the natural world. This youthful epistemology renders the human subject passive regarding his interaction with Nature. Damon does not concern himself much with the meadows materiality but rather is preoccupied with their metaphorical import: the grasss greenness has significance for him solely when he can see it as connoting his interiority. Notable, also, is the narcissism that underlies Damons worldview. The tundamental beliet ot Damons epistemology that Nature is simply composed of signs through which Damon could read himself creates a knowledge that is inwardly directed. Damons knowledge of Nature, derivesd primarily from a hermeneutics of signs and not an engagement with things, echoes the pre-modern epistemology Bacon finds as more focused on deformed images produced by the unequal mirror of the postlapsarian mind. xix The opening line of the poem further reveals that Damon unconsciously now occupies a fallen postlapsarian perspective. Damon appears incognizant of the ntellectual transition that he has undergone. To claim that his mind was once a true survey of the meadows raises concerns as to the state of mindintellectual state from which he is presently speaking. If in what seems to be the unrecoverable past Damon could read Nature correctly, how is the new relationship that he constructs between Nature and hi mself to be read? Damons opening lament at the loss of his earlier mindset, in which existed a harmony between the external and the internal, I believe, removes the reader from the drama that Damon perceives between himself and the meadows. Damon is ignorant to the full implication of his statement; that is, for him, his intellect has not altered, but rather it is the meadows who have abandoned the fellowship between them. However, Marvell, in distancing the reader from his protagonist, holds up for scrutiny the mindset that Damon now occupies. What has been lost to Damon is not, as he Marvell would have the reader believe, the fidelity of his environment to his internal state but instead his ability to perceive such a relationship. So whereas Damon projects the drama of the poem outwardly onto the meadows, the poem relocates the crisis internally within the mind. Essentially, Damon makes the same mistake as he does when he first meets Juliana, which I discuss immediately below: he misreads his own inner turmoil, his intellectual crises, he misreads as an external phenomenon. In Marvells earlier Mower poem, Damon the Mower, Damons tropology presents Nature itself not only as asexual, but also sexuality becomes a destructive, alien force. In the first poem of the Mower sequence, Damon portrays Juliana as emitting a preternatural heat, which appears destructive for both the Mower and the environment alike: This heat the sun could never raise, Nor Dog Star so inflames the days. It from an higher beauty growth Which burns the fields and mower both: Which mads the dog, and makes the sun Hotter than his own Phaeton. No July causeth these extremes, But Julianas scorching beams. Ins. 17-24) As typical of Damon in this earlier stage of consciousness, the internal and the external blur together: his nascent sexual passion for Juliana Damon projects back onto her the heat that he misperceives as emanating from her only to have it threaten the fields and himself. Ironically, Damons confusion about whether this heat emanates from the hot day, or hot desires, leads h im to seek refuge in the xternal, a cool cave or gelid fountain (Ins. 25-32). His fictional world appears resistant yet vulnerable to the sexual passion Juliana provokes in Damon. The asexual tantastical environment that Damon creates, which ne reads himselt in union witn must exclude Julianas presence. Marvell, like Bacon, appears to raise concerns over pre-modern metaphorical perspective as being solipsistic and non-reproductive. Damons gift to Juliana of a harmless snake disarmed of its teeth and sting (Ins. 35-6) speaks to this asexuality: Damons feckless courting in offering the snake, endered impotent, denotes how alien Juliana and the mature sexuality she comes to represent are to his child-like mind. xxx Likewise, The Garden pivots on this same dichotomy between the sexual and the natural. Stanza Ill imagines this antagonism in the image of the tree scarred by lovers inscriptions: No white nor red was ever seen So amrous as this lovely green. Fond lovers, cruel as their flames, Cut in these their mistress name. (Ins. 16-20) Again sexuality appears as an annihilating force that seeks the ruin or perversion of Nature. As with Julianas supposed preternatural heat, the passion of the fond overs become a cruel ruinous flame inimical to a presexual, symbiotic communion with pristine Nature. Jonathan Crewe correctly points out that sexual desire is foreign to the first pastoral world, and is in effect overwritten on it. In this sense, sexuality becomes an imposition, overtly indicated by the speakers tirade against the luxurious gardener whose lustful acts abuse the natural world in The Mower Against Gardens. xxxi Given that in Damon, the Mower sexuality seems alien from a pre-sexual Nature, The Mowers Song marks a profound shiftstark transition in Damons metaphorical tropol ogical framework. Damons ability to take solace in an interpretation of Nature meant entirely for his comfort is obliterated by the imagined indifference of the meadows. Damon now realizes himself as isolated from Nature, recognizing the boundary between the self and the other. However, rather than giving himself over to a solely material universe, one evacuated of any figurative meaning, Damon delves into a new tropological project. The loss that Damon grieves for, the inability within his new tropological paradigmthis interpretation of Nature to easily blur the subjective and the objective, becomes an motional betrayal by the meadows: the growth of the now unthankful meadows signals that they have forgone a fellowship so true (Ins. 3-4). Watson claims that Damon continues to anthropomorphize his environment only now engaging the meadows confrontationally: He has ceased to intervene with his blade, but his mind is still subjugating the grasses to human purposes: they are mocking him only because he has ceased mowing them, but in another sense, they are mocking him only because he has made them volitional and conscious creatures. xxxii For Watson, h en, what primarily denotes Damons tropological shift is the recognition of Nature as possessing a separate will, inimical to Damons own will. Yet an important and overlooked facet of Damons mental transformation, I argue, is that meadows have now become a sexual entity for him:. But these, while I with sorrow pine, Grew more luxuriant still and fine (Ins. 7-8) This moment when Damon notes the lack of correspondence between his internal turmoil and the grass also suggests sexuality as now being part of Nature. The growth of the grass is now luxuriant, a word that possesses sexual implications,

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

What are the tradeoffs between relational and object-oriented Essay

What are the tradeoffs between relational and object-oriented databases and database management systems - Essay Example This section also outlines tradeoffs between relational, object-oriented databases and database management systems. RDBMSs (Relational Database Management Systems) have been offering excellent services and benefits to their users; however this achievement is incomplete as well as limited to only some kinds of applications. In view of the fact that the business clients adopt latest versions of systems, as well as develop to previous ones, their efforts to make use of RDBMS come across the "Relational Wall," where RDBMS technology is no longer capable to offer the functionality and services required by the users. Additionally, users face this barrier when they try to enlarge information models to sustain associations among data, novel data types, extensible data types, and straight support of data objects. In the same way, the barrier can take place when implementing database in distributed environments through complicated processes. On the other hand, attempts to resolve these issues with relational technology cause an explosion of tables, a lot of joins, deprived performance, unfortunate scalability as well as loss of integrity. Thus, ODBMSs present a path further than the wall (Objectivity, Inc., 2005). Additionally, the emergence of new generation of Relational Database Management Systems has offered a lot of advantages to clients. These advantages comprise unplanned query, self-governing data from logical application, and a variety of front-end GUI (graphical user interface) systems. In addition, it has also offered many business applications, as well as the business sector has expended to over $4B yearly, comprising tools. There is a question that why we should look beyond RDBMSs? We should perform so simply when essential to capability and support of new types of systems, new associations, distribution, media data types as well as scalability. In reality, the majority of systems and applications have never made use of RDBMSs, and a lot of applications that have utilized RDMBS are now searching for other options, like that ODBMSs (Objectivity, Inc., 2005). In addition, the relational databases have offered a high-quality service in a lot of customary database systems. Despite the fact that, in many scenarios for instance when it is complicated to deal with information, or when superior efficiency is needed (i.e. objects having anonymous identifiers, or objects going from one type to another, etc.), or when we need to manage non-conventional data (such as images, long texts, etc.), additional techniques need to be implemented. Normally, these techniques include object-oriented or semantic databases. Additionally, the semantic database models are object oriented database models. Moreover, they present, a variety of levels, a lot of characteristics of semantic models, in the form of conceptual information, as well as, purify a number of behavioral characteristics of the data (Rishe, 2010). However, if a RDBMS can resolve our problems without numerous efforts as well as offers the required results, efficiency and scalability then there is no need to utilize an ODBMS. If some of the below given situations are convened then we should think about using ODBMS. Belo w are some of the important reasons that require us to make use of RDBMS: (Objectivity, Inc., 2011) Complicated Relationships: If we are having numerous many-to-many relationships in our database, tree arrangements or network (graph) formations (Objectivity, Inc., 2011). Complicated Data Arrangement: If the data has numerous changeable length parts, such as arrays of structures, multi-dimensional arrays or binary streams (Objectivity, In